Processes are hidden in organizations, waiting to be found
Identify Processes: distinguish processes, select the important ones
Represent Processes: gather knowledge about processes so that they can be modeled
Enterprises add value by collaborating with suppliers and delivering to customers their products through sales and distribution channels
Primary Functions directly add to the value generated by an enterprise
Support Functions enable the efficient execution of the primary functions
Process Owner: who is responsible?
Process Goal: what is the purpose?
Process Scope: what are the boundaries between processes?
Process Portfolio: what are the important processes?
Suppliers: are needed for the success of the process (provide input, involved in upstream processes)
Owner: responsible for the process success
Participants: involved directly in the process (but may have a narrow perspective about it)
Customers: depend on the successful outcome of the process (only see the output, involved in downstream processes)
This indicates some confusion between mapping the organization and discovering its processes. Some processes are cross-functional, and the same units may run multiple processes.
Functional: the main purpose of the process (e.g., purchase supplies, hire staff, find customers, develop new products)
Non-Functional: hard criteria for success (time, cost, quality, satisfaction, compliance) with the corresponding metrics, thresholds and priorities
coarse-grained vs. fine-grained
separation between distinct processes
Coarse Grained Processes are too large to study and optimize. Too many people are involved: gathering knowledge and applying changes becomes expensive.
Improving Fine Grained Processes may lead to local optimizations where the overall performance is not improved
Define process boundaries depending on organizational aspects (which business functions are involved) and a classification of cases (which way different products/services are handled)
Product Types: life vs. health insurance, book vs. magazine, software vs. hardware
Service Type: prepaid vs. contract subscriber
Geographic Location: Continent, Country, Regional Markets
Channel: in person, telephone, email, Web
Customer: new, returning, frequent flyer
Case types can be a combination of any of the above classification dimensions
Define what the organization does to handle the various case types
4. Deliver Product and Services
4.2. Procure Materials and Services
4.2.4. Manage Suppliers
22.214.171.124. Monitor Quality of Product Delivered
Functions are refined and decomposed up to a level of detail that can help discover organizational units that can play different process roles
See the APQC Process Classification Framework reference model
Why can't we use reference process models instead of going through all the effort of process discovery?
Reference Models help to prepare the discovery process and ensure that important details have not been overlooked
One big process covers all functions and all case types
A process every time a function can be performed for each case type
Tradeoff between broad scoping and narrow focus, some functions collaborate over more than one case type, but not all.
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